Android (système d'exploitation) – Wikipedia – écrire un livre de loisirs créatifs

Système d'exploitation libre et à code source ouvert pour les appareils mobiles, développé par Google

Android
Robot Android 2014.svg
Logo Android (2014) .svg

Logo actuel (Haut) et logotype (bas)

Capture d'écran

Android Pie.png
Développeur
Écrit en Java (UI), C (coeur), C ++ et d'autres(1)
Famille OS Unix-like (Modifié Noyau Linux)
État de travail Actuel
Modèle source Open source (la plupart des appareils incluent propriétaire composants, tels que jeu de Google)
Première version 23 septembre 2008; Il ya 10 ans (2008-09-23)(2)
Dernière version 9.0 "Tarte" / 6 août 2018; il y a 9 mois (2018-08-06)
Dernier aperçu Android Q Bêta 3(3) / 7 mai 2019; Il y a 20 jours (2019-05-07)
Cible marketing Smartphones, ordinateurs tablettes, smartTVs (Android TV), Android Auto et montres intelligentes (Porter OS)
Disponible en 100+ langues(4)
Méthode de mise à jour Sur les airs
Directeur chargé d'emballage APK (principalement par jeu de Google; installation de fichiers APK également possible localement ou à partir de sources alternatives telles que F-Droid)
Plateformes 32- et 64 bits BRAS, x86 et x86-64
Noyau type Monolithique
Userland Bionic Libc,(5) mksh coquille,(6) Coffre à jouets comme utilitaires de base (à partir d'Android 6.0)(7)(8)
Défaut interface utilisateur Graphique (Multi-touches)
Licence
Site officiel www.Android.com
Articles de la série
Historique des versions Android

Android est un système d'exploitation mobile développé par Google. Il est basé sur une version modifiée du Noyau Linux et autre Open source logiciel, et est conçu principalement pour écran tactile appareils mobiles tels que smartphones et comprimés. En outre, Google a développé plus avant Android TV pour les téléviseurs, Android Auto pour les voitures, et Porter OS pour les montres-bracelets, chacune avec une interface utilisateur spécialisée. Des variantes d’Android sont également utilisées sur consoles de jeux, Caméras digitales, PC et autres appareils électroniques.

Initialement développé par Android Inc., racheté par Google en 2005, Android a été dévoilé en 2007, avec premier appareil Android commercial lancé en septembre 2008. Depuis, le système d’exploitation a connu plusieurs versions majeures, la version actuellement stable étant 9 "Tarte", publié en août 2018. Google a publié le premier Android Q version bêta sur tous les téléphones Pixel le 13 mars 2019. Le code source Android principal est connu sous le nom de projet Open Source Android (AOSP), et est principalement sous licence Licence Apache.

Android est également associé à une suite de logiciel propriétaire développé par Google, appelé Services Google Mobile(dix) (GMS) qui vient très souvent pré-installé dans les appareils, qui comprend généralement le Google Chrome navigateur web et Recherche Google et inclut toujours des applications de base pour des services tels que Gmail, aussi bien que magasin d'applications et distribution numérique Plate-forme jeu de Googleet associés plateforme de développement. Ces applications sont concédées sous licence par les fabricants d’appareils Android certifiés selon les normes imposées par Google, mais le format AOSP a été utilisé comme base d’écosystèmes Android concurrents, tels que Amazon.comde Fire OS, qui utilisent leurs propres équivalents à GMS.

Android est l'OS le plus vendu au monde sur les smartphones depuis 2011 et sur les tablettes depuis 2013. À partir de mai 2017, il a plus de deux milliards utilisateurs actifs mensuels, le plus large base installée de tout système d'exploitation, et à partir de décembre 2018, la jeu de Google magasin dispose de plus de 2,6 millions d'applications.(11)

L'histoire

Ancien logo Android (2007-2014)

Programmeur Andy Rubin android.com a été choisi comme site Web personnel et ses collègues ont utilisé Android comme surnom au travail. Le nom Andrew et le nom Android partagent le même nom. grec racine Andros, ce qui signifie homme. Cela a fini par devenir le nom de la société qu'il a fondée et le nom du système d'exploitation qu'ils ont développé.(12)

Le prototype de téléphone "Sooner",(13) exécuter une version préliminaire d'Android

Android Inc. a été fondée en Palo Alto, Californie, en octobre 2003 par Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears et Chris White.(14)(15) Rubin a décrit le projet Android comme "un potentiel énorme pour le développement d'appareils mobiles plus intelligents, plus conscients de l'emplacement et des préférences de son propriétaire".(15) Les premières intentions de la société étaient de développer un système d'exploitation avancé pour Caméras digitales, et c’est la base de son discours aux investisseurs en avril 2004.(16) La société a alors décidé que le marché des appareils photo n’était pas assez vaste pour atteindre ses objectifs et, cinq mois plus tard, elle avait détourné ses efforts et présentait Android comme un système d’exploitation du téléphone qui rivaliserait avec celui-ci. Symbian et Microsoft Windows Mobile.(16)(17)

Rubin a eu du mal à attirer les investisseurs dès le début et Android devait faire face à l'expulsion de ses bureaux. Steve Perlman, un ami proche de Rubin, lui a apporté 10 000 dollars en espèces dans une enveloppe et a peu de temps après viré un montant non divulgué à titre de financement de démarrage. Perlman a refusé une participation dans l'entreprise et a déclaré: "Je l'ai fait parce que je croyais en la chose et que je voulais aider Andy."(18)(19)

En juillet 2005,(15) Google a acquis Android Inc. pour au moins 50 millions de dollars.(20) Ses employés clés, notamment Rubin, Miner et White, ont rejoint Google dans le cadre de l’acquisition.(15) À l'époque, on ignorait tout du secret d'Android, la société n'ayant fourni que peu de précisions, à part le fait qu'elle fabriquait des logiciels pour les téléphones mobiles.(15) Chez Google, l’équipe dirigée par Rubin a développé une plate-forme pour appareils mobiles optimisée par le Noyau Linux. Google a commercialisé la plate-forme pour fabricants de combinés et transporteurs sur la promesse de fournir un système flexible et évolutif.(21) Google avait "aligné une série de partenaires de composants matériels et logiciels et indiqué aux opérateurs de télécommunication qu'il était ouvert à divers degrés de coopération".(attribution nécessaire)(22)

Les rumeurs concernant l’intention de Google d’entrer sur le marché des communications mobiles ont continué à augmenter jusqu’en décembre 2006.(23) Un début prototype ressemblait beaucoup à un La mûre téléphone, sans écran tactile et un physique QWERTY clavier, mais l'arrivée de 2007 Pomme iPhone signifiait que Android "devait retourner à la planche à dessin".(24)(25) Google a ensuite modifié ses documents de spécification Android pour indiquer que "Les écrans tactiles seront pris en charge", bien que "le produit ait été conçu avec la présence de boutons physiques discrets comme hypothèse; par conséquent, un écran tactile ne peut pas remplacer complètement les boutons physiques".(26) En 2008, les deux Nokia et BlackBerry ont annoncé des smartphones tactiles pour rivaliser avec le iPhone 3G, et le focus d’Android a finalement basculé sur les écrans tactiles. Le premier smartphone disponible sur le marché fonctionnant sous Android était le HTC Dream, également connu sous le nom de T-Mobile G1, annoncé le 23 septembre 2008.(27)(28)

HTC Dream ou T-Mobile G1, le premier appareil commercialisé sous Android (2008)

Le 5 novembre 2007, le Open Handset Alliance, une consortium des entreprises technologiques, y compris Google, des fabricants d’appareils tels que HTC, Motorola et Samsung, des opérateurs sans fil tels que Sprint et T Mobileet des fabricants de chipsets tels que Qualcomm et Texas Instruments, s’est dévoilé lui-même dans le but de développer "la première plate-forme véritablement ouverte et complète pour les appareils mobiles".(29)(30)(31) En un an, Open Handset Alliance a dû faire face à deux autres Open source concurrents, les Fondation Symbian et le Fondation LiMo, ce dernier développant également un Linuxsystème d'exploitation mobile basé sur Google, par exemple. En septembre 2007, InformationWeek couvert une étude Evalueserve rapportant que Google avait déposé plusieurs brevet applications dans le domaine de la téléphonie mobile.(32)(33)

Depuis 2008, Android a vu nombreuses mises à jour qui ont amélioré progressivement le système d'exploitation, en ajoutant de nouvelles fonctionnalités et en corrigeant bogues dans les versions précédentes. Chaque version majeure est nommée dans l'ordre alphabétique d'après un dessert ou une friandise sucrée, les premières versions d'Android étant appelées "Petit gâteau","Donut","Eclair", et "Froyo", dans cet ordre. Lors de son annonce de Android KitKat en 2013, Google expliquait que "comme ces appareils rendent nos vies si agréables, chaque version d'Android est nommée d'après un dessert", a déclaré un porte-parole de Google. CNN dans une interview: "C'est un peu comme une affaire d'équipe interne, et nous préférons être un peu – comment dirais-je – un peu impénétrable, je dirais".(34)

En 2010, Google a lancé son Lien série d'appareils, une gamme dans laquelle Google s'est associé à différents fabricants d'appareils pour produire de nouveaux appareils et introduire de nouvelles versions d'Android. La série a été décrite comme "ayant joué un rôle central dans l’histoire d’Android en introduisant de nouvelles itérations logicielles et normes matérielles", et est devenue connue pour son "sans ballonnement"logiciel avec" mises à jour … opportunes ".(35) À son conférence de développeurs en mai 2013, Google a annoncé une version spéciale du logiciel Samsung Galaxy S4, où, au lieu d'utiliser la propre personnalisation Android de Samsung, le téléphone utilisait l'option "Stock Android" et promettait de recevoir rapidement les nouvelles mises à jour du système.(36) L'appareil deviendrait le début de la Édition Google Play programme, et a été suivi par d’autres dispositifs, notamment le HTC One Édition Google Play,(37) et Moto G Google Play édition.(38) En 2015, Ars Technica "Plus tôt cette semaine, les derniers téléphones Android de l'édition Google Play sur la vitrine en ligne de Google étaient répertoriés comme" n'étant plus disponibles à la vente "et" maintenant, ils sont tous partis, et il ressemble beaucoup au programme emballé".(39)(40)

De 2008 à 2013, Hugo Barra porte-parole du produit, représentant Android lors de conférences de presse et Google I / O, Conférence annuelle de Google sur les développeurs. Il a quitté Google en août 2013 pour rejoindre le fabricant de téléphones chinois. Xiaomi.(41)(42) Moins de six mois plus tôt, GooglePDG Larry Page a annoncé dans un article de blog qu'Andy Rubin avait quitté la division Android pour se lancer dans de nouveaux projets chez Google, et que Sundar Pichai deviendrait le nouveau lead Android.(43)(44) Pichai lui-même allait éventuellement changer de poste et deviendrait le nouveau PDG de Google en août 2015, à la suite de la restructuration de la société. Alphabet conglomérat,(45)(46) fabrication Hiroshi Lockheimer le nouveau chef d'Android.(47)(48)

En juin 2014, Google a annoncé Android One, un ensemble de "modèles de référence de matériel" qui "permettraient (aux fabricants de périphériques) de créer facilement des téléphones de haute qualité à moindre coût", conçus pour les consommateurs des pays en développement.(49)(50)(51) En septembre, Google a annoncé la première série de téléphones Android One destinés à être commercialisés en Inde.(52)(53) cependant, Recoder a indiqué en juin 2015 que le projet était "une déception", citant "des consommateurs et des partenaires industriels réticents" et "des ratés de la part de la société de recherche qui n'a jamais totalement craqué le matériel".(54) Les plans pour relancer Android One ont fait surface en août 2015,(55) avec l’Afrique annoncé comme prochain lieu du programme une semaine plus tard.(56)(57) Un rapport de L'information en janvier 2017, Google étend son programme Android One à faible coût aux États-Unis, bien que Le bord note que la société ne produira probablement pas les dispositifs réels elle-même.(58)(59)

Google a introduit le Smartphones Pixel et Pixel XL en octobre 2016, commercialisé comme étant les premiers téléphones fabriqués par Google,(60)(61) et présentait exclusivement certaines fonctionnalités du logiciel, telles que la Assistant Google, avant un déploiement plus large.(62)(63) Les téléphones Pixel ont remplacé la série Nexus,(64) avec une nouvelle génération de téléphones Pixel lancée en octobre 2017.(65)

Caractéristiques

Interface

L'interface utilisateur par défaut d'Android est principalement basée sur manipulation directe, en utilisant des entrées tactiles qui correspondent vaguement à des actions réelles, telles que le balayage, la frappe, le pincement et le pincement inversé pour manipuler des objets à l'écran, avec un clavier virtuel.(66) Contrôleurs de jeu et physique grandeur nature claviers sont pris en charge via Bluetooth ou USB.(67)(68) La réponse à la saisie de l'utilisateur est conçue pour être immédiate et fournit une interface tactile fluide, utilisant souvent les capacités de vibration du périphérique pour fournir retour haptique à l'utilisateur. Matériel interne, tel que accéléromètres, gyroscopes et Capteurs de proximité sont utilisées par certaines applications pour répondre à des actions supplémentaires de l'utilisateur, par exemple en ajustant l'écran de portrait en paysage en fonction de l'orientation du périphérique,(69) ou permettant à l'utilisateur de diriger un véhicule dans un jeu de course en faisant tourner le dispositif, en simulant le contrôle d'un volant.(70)

Les appareils Android démarrent sur l’écran d’accueil, principal "hub" de navigation et d’information sur les appareils Android, analogue au bureau trouvé sur les ordinateurs personnels. Les écrans d'accueil Android sont généralement constitués d'icônes d'applications et widgets; Les icônes d'application lancent l'application associée, tandis que les widgets affichent en direct le contenu à mise à jour automatique, tel qu'un fichier. prévisions météorologiques, la boîte de réception de l'utilisateur, ou un téléscripteur directement sur l'écran d'accueil.(71) Un écran d'accueil peut être composé de plusieurs pages, entre lesquelles l'utilisateur peut glisser dans les deux sens.(72) Applications tierces disponibles sur jeu de Google et d’autres magasins d’applications peuvent largementthème l'écran d'accueil,(73) et même imiter l'apparence d'autres systèmes d'exploitation, tels que Téléphone Windows.(74) La plupart des fabricants personnalisent l'apparence et les fonctionnalités de leurs appareils Android pour se différencier de leurs concurrents.(75)

En haut de l'écran, une barre d'état affiche des informations sur le périphérique et sa connectivité. Cette barre d'état peut être "abaissée" pour afficher un écran de notification dans lequel les applications affichent des informations importantes ou des mises à jour.(72) Les notifications sont des "informations brèves, opportunes et pertinentes sur votre application lorsqu'elle n'est pas utilisée" et, lorsque vous appuyez dessus, les utilisateurs sont dirigés vers un écran de l'application relatif à la notification.(76) Commençant par Android 4.1 "Jelly Bean", "notifications extensibles" permettent à l’utilisateur de toucher une icône sur la notification pour pouvoir la développer et afficher davantage d’informations et les actions possibles de l’app directement à partir de la notification.(77)

Un écran Toutes les applications répertorie toutes les applications installées, avec la possibilité pour les utilisateurs de faire glisser une application de la liste vers l'écran d'accueil. Un écran Récents permet aux utilisateurs de basculer entre les applications récemment utilisées.(72)

Applications

Applications ("applications"), qui étendent les fonctionnalités des appareils, sont écrits en utilisant le Développement de logiciels Android kit (SDK)(78) et souvent le Java langage de programmation.(79) Java peut être combiné avec C/C ++,(80) avec un choix de non-défaut temps d'exécution qui permettent un meilleur support C ++.(81) le Aller langage de programmation est également pris en charge, bien que avec un ensemble limité de interfaces de programmation d'application (API).(82) En mai 2017, Google a annoncé la prise en charge du développement d'applications Android dans le Langage de programmation Kotlin.(83)(84)

Le SDK comprend un ensemble complet d’outils de développement,(85) y compris un débogueur, bibliothèques de logiciels, un combiné émulateur basé sur QEMU, documentation, exemples de code et tutoriels. Au départ, Google a pris en charge environnement de développement intégré (IDE) était Éclipse utiliser le plugin Android Development Tools (ADT); en décembre 2014, Google a publié Studio Android, basé sur IntelliJ IDEA, en tant que principal IDE pour le développement d'applications Android. D'autres outils de développement sont disponibles, notamment un kit de développement natif (NDK) pour des applications ou des extensions en C ou C ++, Google App Inventor, un environnement visuel pour les programmeurs débutants et divers frameworks d'applications web mobiles multiplateformes. En janvier 2014, Google a dévoilé un cadre basé sur Apache Cordova pour le portage Chrome HTML 5 des applications Web sur Android, enveloppé dans un shell d'application natif.(86)

Android propose de plus en plus d'applications tierces, que les utilisateurs peuvent acquérir en téléchargeant et en installant les applications APK (Package d'application Android), ou en les téléchargeant à l'aide d'un magasin d'applications programme qui permet aux utilisateurs de installer, mettre à jour et supprimer des applications de leurs appareils. Google Play Store est le magasin d'applications principal installé sur les appareils Android qui est conforme aux exigences de compatibilité de Google et fournit une licence pour le logiciel Google Mobile Services.(87)(88) Google Play Store permet aux utilisateurs de parcourir, télécharger et mettre à jour les applications publiées par Google et des développeurs tiers. à partir de juillet 2013, plus d’un million d’applications sont disponibles pour Android dans Play Store.(89) À partir de juillet 2013, 50 milliards d’applications ont été installées.(90)(91) Certains opérateurs proposent une facturation directe par l'opérateur pour les achats d'applications Google Play, le coût de l'application étant ajouté à la facture mensuelle de l'utilisateur.(92) À partir de mai 2017, il y a plus d'un milliard d'utilisateurs actifs par mois pour Gmail, Android, Chrome, Google Play et Maps.

En raison de la nature ouverte d'Android, un certain nombre de marchés d'applications tierces existent également pour Android, que ce soit pour remplacer les appareils non autorisés à être livrés avec Google Play Store ou pour fournir des applications qui ne peuvent pas être proposées sur Google Play Store. violations de la politique, ou pour d'autres raisons. Des exemples de ces magasins tiers ont inclus le Amazon Appstore, GetJaret SlideMe. F-Droid, un autre marché alternatif, cherche à ne proposer que des applications distribuées sous source libre et ouverte licences.(87)(93)(94)(95)

Gestion de la mémoire

Étant donné que les appareils Android sont généralement alimentés par batterie, Android est conçu pour gérer les processus de manière à limiter la consommation d'énergie au minimum. Lorsqu'une application n'est pas utilisée, le système suspend son fonctionnement de sorte que, bien qu’il soit disponible pour une utilisation immédiate plutôt que fermée, il n’utilise ni la batterie ni les ressources du processeur.(96)(97) Android gère automatiquement les applications stockées en mémoire: lorsque la mémoire est faible, le système commence à fermer de manière invisible et ferme automatiquement les processus inactifs, à commencer par ceux qui ont été inactifs pendant la plus longue période.(98)(99) Lifehacker a rapporté en 2011 que les applications tierces qui tuaient les tâches faisaient plus de mal que de bien.(100)

Matériel

La plate-forme matérielle principale pour Android est BRAS (la ARMv7 et ARMv8-A architectures), avec x86 et x86-64 architectures également officiellement pris en charge dans les versions ultérieures d'Android.(101)(102)(103)(104) Le officieux Android-x86 le projet a fourni un support pour les architectures x86 avant le support officiel.(105)(106) Les architectures ARMv5TE et MIPS32 / 64 ont également été prises en charge, mais ont été supprimées dans les versions ultérieures d'Android.(107) Depuis 2012, les appareils Android avec Intel les processeurs ont commencé à apparaître, y compris les téléphones(108) et des comprimés. Tout en obtenant le support pour les plates-formes 64 bits, Android a d'abord été conçu pour fonctionner sur 64 bits x86, puis ARM64. Depuis Android 5.0 "Lollipop", 64 bits Des variantes de toutes les plateformes sont supportées en plus des 32 bits variantes.(101)

Conditions requises pour le montant minimum de RAM pour les appareils fonctionnant sous Android 7.1, la plage d'utilisation varie en pratique de 2 Go pour le meilleur matériel, jusqu'à 1 Go pour l'écran le plus courant, à 512 Mo minimum pour le smartphone 32 bits le moins performant. La recommandation pour Android 4.4 est d'avoir au moins 512 Mo de RAM,(109) tandis que pour les périphériques "à faible mémoire RAM", 340 Mo est la quantité minimale requise qui n'inclut pas la mémoire dédiée à divers composants matériels tels que le processeur de bande de base.(110) Android 4.4 nécessite un 32 bits ARMv7, MIPS ou x86 processeur d'architecture (deux derniers via des ports non officiels),(105)(106) avec un OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible processeur graphique (GPU).(111) Android prend en charge OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0, 3.0, 3.1 et à partir de la dernière version majeure, 3.2 et depuis Android 7.0. Vulkan (et la version 1.1 disponible pour certains appareils(112)). Certaines applications peuvent nécessiter explicitement une certaine version d'OpenGL ES et un matériel GPU approprié est requis pour exécuter de telles applications.(111)

Les appareils Android intègrent de nombreux composants matériels optionnels, y compris des caméras fixes ou vidéo, GPS, capteurs d'orientation, contrôles de jeu dédiés, accéléromètres, gyroscopes, baromètres, magnétomètres, Capteurs de proximité, capteurs de pression, thermomètres et écrans tactiles. Certains composants matériels ne sont pas requis, mais sont devenus la norme dans certaines classes de périphériques, tels que les smartphones, et des exigences supplémentaires s’appliquent s’ils sont présents. Un autre matériel était initialement requis, mais ces exigences ont été assouplies ou supprimées. Par exemple, dans la mesure où Android a été initialement développé sous la forme d’un système d’exploitation de téléphone, un matériel tel que des microphones était nécessaire, tandis que la fonction téléphone devenait avec le temps facultative.(91) Android avait besoin d'un autofocus caméra, qui était détendue à un mise au point fixe caméra(91) le cas échéant, puisque la caméra a été supprimée comme une exigence complète lorsque Android a commencé à être utilisé sur décodeurs.

En plus de fonctionner sur les smartphones et les tablettes, plusieurs fournisseurs exécutent Android nativement sur du matériel PC ordinaire avec un clavier et une souris.(113)(114)(115)(116) En plus de leur disponibilité sur le matériel disponible dans le commerce, des versions similaires d’Android compatibles avec le matériel informatique sont disponibles gratuitement à partir du projet Android-x86, y compris l’Android 4.4 personnalisé.(117) Utiliser l'Android émulateur cela fait partie de la SDK Androidou des émulateurs tiers, Android peut également fonctionner de manière non native sur des architectures x86.(118)(119) Les entreprises chinoises construisent un système d'exploitation pour PC et mobile, basé sur Android, afin de "concurrencer directement Microsoft Windows et Google Android".(120) L'Académie chinoise d'ingénierie a noté que "plus d'une douzaine" d'entreprises personnalisaient Android à la suite d'une interdiction chinoise d'utiliser Windows 8 sur des PC gouvernementaux.(121)(122)(123)

Développement

La pile de projet Open Source Android

Android est développé par Google jusqu’à ce que les dernières modifications et mises à jour soient prêtes à être publiées, le code source est mis à la disposition du projet Open Source Android (AOSP),(124) un Open source initiative dirigée par Google.(125) Le code AOSP peut être trouvé sans modification sur certains appareils, principalement les Lien et Pixel série d'appareils.(126) Le code source est à son tour personnalisé et adapté par fabricants d'équipement d'origine (OEM) à fonctionner sur leur matériel.(127)(128) En outre, le code source d'Android ne contient pas le souvent propriétaire pilotes de périphérique qui sont nécessaires pour certains composants matériels.(129) En conséquence, la plupart des appareils Android, y compris ceux de Google, sont livrés avec une combinaison de source libre et ouverte et propriétaire logiciel, le logiciel requis pour accéder aux services Google relevant de cette dernière catégorie.

Calendrier de mise à jour

Google annonce chaque année des mises à niveau incrémentielles majeures vers Android.(130) Les mises à jour peuvent être installées sur des appareils over-the-air.(131) La dernière version majeure est 9 "Tarte".

Par rapport à son principal système d'exploitation mobile rival, Pommede iOS, Les mises à jour Android atteignent généralement divers appareils avec des retards importants. À l'exception des appareils des marques Google Nexus et Pixel, les mises à jour arrivent souvent des mois après la publication de la nouvelle version, voire pas du tout.(132) Ceci est en partie dû à la grande variation de Matériel dans les appareils Android,(133) chaque mise à niveau doit être spécifiquement adaptée, ce qui prend du temps et des ressources.(134) Les fabricants accordent souvent la priorité à leurs appareils les plus récents et abandonnent les anciens.(135) Des retards supplémentaires peuvent être introduits par les opérateurs de téléphonie mobile qui, après avoir reçu les mises à jour des fabricants, adaptent davantage Android aux besoins de leur marque et procèdent à des tests approfondis sur leurs réseaux avant d’envoyer la mise à niveau aux utilisateurs.(135)(136) Il existe également des situations dans lesquelles des mises à niveau ne sont pas possibles car un partenaire de fabrication ne fournit pas les mises à jour nécessaires pour les chauffeurs.(137)

La grande variété de matériel dans les appareils Android provoque des retards importants dans les mises à niveau logicielles, avec les nouvelles versions du système d'exploitation et correctifs de sécurité Cela prend généralement des mois avant d’atteindre les consommateurs ou parfois même pas du tout. L'absence de soutien après-vente des fabricants et des transporteurs a été largement critiquée par les groupes de consommateurs et les médias technologiques.(138)(139)(140) Certains commentateurs ont noté que l'industrie disposait d'un incitatif financier pour ne pas mettre à niveau leurs appareils, car le manque de mises à jour pour les appareils existants alimentait l'achat de nouveaux,(141) une attitude décrite comme "insultante".(140) Le gardien se sont plaints du fait que la méthode de distribution des mises à jour est compliquée uniquement parce que les fabricants et les opérateurs l'ont conçue de cette manière.(140) En 2011, Google s'est associé à un certain nombre d'acteurs du secteur pour annoncer la création d'une "alliance de mise à jour Android", s'engageant à fournir des mises à jour rapides pour chaque appareil 18 mois après sa sortie. Cependant, il n'y a pas eu d'autre mot officiel sur cette alliance depuis son annonce.(135)(142)

En 2012, Google a commencé à découpler certains aspects du système d'exploitation (notamment ses applications principales) afin de pouvoir les mettre à jour via la jeu de Google stocker indépendamment du système d'exploitation. Un de ces composants, Services Google Play, est un source fermée processus au niveau du système fournissant Apis pour les services Google, installé automatiquement sur presque tous les appareils fonctionnant Android 2.2 "Froyo" et plus haut. Grâce à ces modifications, Google peut ajouter de nouvelles fonctionnalités au système via Play Services et mettre à jour des applications sans avoir à distribuer une mise à niveau au système d'exploitation lui-même.(143) Par conséquent, Android 4.2 et 4.3 "Jelly Bean" contenait relativement moins de changements concernant les utilisateurs, se concentrant davantage sur les changements mineurs et les améliorations de la plate-forme.(144)

En mai 2016, Bloomberg a signalé que Google faisait des efforts pour tenir Android plus à jour, notamment en accélérant les mises à jour de sécurité, en déployant des solutions de contournement technologiques, en réduisant les exigences en matière de tests téléphoniques et en plaçant les fabricants de téléphones en ordre pour les "honte" d'adopter un meilleur comportement. Tel qu'énoncé par Bloomberg: "À mesure que les smartphones deviennent plus performants, complexes et piratables, il est de plus en plus important que les logiciels les plus récents travaillent en étroite collaboration avec le matériel". Hiroshi Lockheimer, le responsable d'Android, a admis que "ce n'est pas une situation idéale", ajoutant que l'absence de mises à jour est "le maillon le plus faible en matière de sécurité sur Android". Les opérateurs de téléphonie mobile ont été décrits dans le rapport comme "les discussions les plus difficiles", en raison de la lenteur de leur processus d'approbation en raison des tests sur leurs réseaux, malgré certains opérateurs, notamment Verizon et Sprint, ayant déjà raccourci leurs délais d'approbation respectifs. HTCL’exécutif de l’époque, Jason Mackenzie, a qualifié les mises à jour mensuelles de sécurité «irréalistes» en 2015, et Google tentait de persuader les opérateurs d’exclure les correctifs de sécurité des procédures de test complètes. Dans un effort supplémentaire de persuasion, Google a partagé une liste des principaux fabricants de téléphones, mesurés par les appareils mis à jour, avec ses partenaires Android, et envisage de rendre la liste publique. Mike Chan, cofondateur du fabricant de téléphones Nextbit et ancien développeur pour Android, a déclaré que "le meilleur moyen de résoudre ce problème est une réarchitecture massive du système d'exploitation", "ou Google pourrait investir dans la formation des fabricants et des opérateurs". bons citoyens Android "".(145)(146)(147)

En mai 2017, avec l'annonce de Android 8.0, Google a présenté Project Treble, un architecte majeur du système d’exploitation Android conçu pour permettre aux fabricants de mettre à jour leurs appareils plus facilement, plus rapidement et à moindre coût, avec les nouvelles versions d’Android. Project Treble sépare l'implémentation du fournisseur (logiciel de niveau inférieur spécifique à l'appareil, écrit par les fabricants de silicium) du cadre Android OS via une nouvelle "interface fournisseur". Dans Android 7.0 et les versions antérieures, il n'existe aucune interface fournisseur officielle. Par conséquent, les fabricants d'appareils doivent mettre à jour de grandes parties du code Android pour déplacer un appareil vers une version plus récente du système d'exploitation. Avec Treble, la nouvelle interface fournisseur stable permet d’accéder aux composants d’Android spécifiques au matériel, permettant aux fabricants d’appareils de fournir de nouvelles versions d’Android simplement en mettant à jour le système d’exploitation Android, "sans aucun travail supplémentaire de la part des fabricants de silicium".(148)

En septembre 2017, l'équipe Project Treble de Google a révélé que, dans le cadre de ses efforts pour améliorer le cycle de vie de sécurité des appareils Android, Google avait réussi à obtenir que la Linux Foundation accepte d'étendre le cycle de vie du support à long terme (LTS) de Linux. branche de noyau à partir des 2 années qu’il a historiquement durées jusqu’à 6 ans pour les versions futures du noyau LTS, à partir du noyau Linux 4.4.(149)

Noyau Linux

Android noyau est basé sur le Noyau Linuxde Soutien à long terme (LTS) branches. À partir de 2018, Android cible les versions 4.4, 4.9 ou 4.14 du noyau Linux.(150) Le noyau réel dépend du périphérique individuel.(151)

La version Android du noyau Linux comporte d’autres modifications architecturales mises en œuvre par Google en dehors du cycle de développement typique du noyau Linux, telles que l’inclusion de composants tels que les arborescences de périphériques, ashmem, ION, etc. Mémoire insuffisante (MOO) manutention.(152)(153) Certaines fonctionnalités apportées par Google au noyau Linux, notamment une fonction de gestion de l'alimentation appelée "wakelocks",(154) ont été initialement rejetés par les développeurs du noyau principal, en partie parce qu'ils estimaient que Google ne manifestait aucune intention de conserver son propre code.(155)(156) En avril 2010, Google avait annoncé l'embauche de deux employés pour travailler avec la communauté du noyau Linux.(157) mais Greg Kroah-Hartman, le responsable actuel du noyau Linux pour la branche stable, a déclaré en décembre 2010 qu'il craignait que Google n'essaye plus d'intégrer leurs modifications de code dans Linux traditionnel.(156) Patrick Brady, ingénieur Google, a déclaré une fois dans la société conférence de développeurs qu'Android n'est pas Linux,(158) avec Monde de l'ordinateur ajoutant que "Permettez-moi de vous simplifier la vie, sans Linux, il n’existe pas d’Android".(159) Ars Technica a écrit: "Bien qu'Android soit construit sur le noyau Linux, la plate-forme a très peu de points communs avec la pile Linux de bureau classique".(158)

En août 2011, Linus Torvalds a déclaré que "finalement, Android et Linux reviendraient à un noyau commun, mais ce ne sera probablement pas avant quatre ou cinq ans".(160) En décembre 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman a annoncé le lancement du projet Mainlining pour Android, qui vise à les chauffeurs, correctifs et fonctionnalités dans le noyau Linux, à partir de Linux 3.3.(161) Linux incluait les fonctions autosleep et wakelocks dans le noyau 3.5, après de nombreuses tentatives de fusion. Les interfaces sont les mêmes mais l'implémentation Linux en amont permet deux modes de suspension différents: la mémoire (la suspension traditionnelle utilisée par Android) et le disque (mise en veille prolongée, comme on l'appelle sur le bureau).(162) Google maintient un référentiel de code public contenant leurs travaux expérimentaux afin de: re-base Android des dernières versions stables de Linux.(163)(164)

le stockage flash sur les appareils Android est divisé en plusieurs partitions, telles que /système pour le système d'exploitation lui-même, et /Les données pour les données utilisateur et les installations d'applications.(165) Contrairement aux distributions Linux de bureau, les propriétaires de périphériques Android ne sont pas donnés racine accès au système d’exploitation et aux partitions sensibles telles que / system lecture seulement. cependant, accès root peut être obtenu en exploitant failles de sécurité sous Android, fréquemment utilisé par le communauté open-source pour améliorer les capacités de leurs appareils,(166) mais aussi par des parties malveillantes à installer les virus et malware.(167)

Android est un Distribution Linux selon le Fondation Linux,(168) Le chef open-source de Google Chris DiBona,(169) et plusieurs journalistes.(170)(171) D'autres, tels que Patrick Brady, ingénieur chez Google, affirment qu'Android n'est pas Linux au sens traditionnel du terme. Unix-like Sens de la distribution Linux; Android n'inclut pas le Bibliothèque GNU C (il utilise Bionique en tant que bibliothèque C alternative) et certains des autres composants généralement présents dans les distributions Linux.(172)

Avec la sortie de Android Oreo en 2017, Google a commencé à exiger que les appareils livrés avec de nouvelles Les SoC avait une version 4.4 ou plus récente du noyau Linux, pour des raisons de sécurité. Les appareils existants mis à niveau vers Oreo et les nouveaux produits lancés avec des anciens SoC étaient exemptés de cette règle.(173)(174)

Pile logicielle

Schéma d'architecture Android

En plus du noyau Linux, il y a le middleware, les bibliothèques et Apis écrit en C, et logiciel d'application courir sur un cadre d'application qui inclut JavaBibliothèques compatibles. Le développement du noyau Linux se poursuit indépendamment des autres projets de code source d’Android.

Android utilise Android Runtime (ART) comme environnement d’exécution (introduit dans la version 4.4), qui utilise compilation en avance sur le temps (AOT) compiler entièrement le bytecode de l'application en langage machine lors de l'installation d'une application. Dans Android 4.4, ART était une fonctionnalité expérimentale et n'était pas activée par défaut. il est devenu la seule option d'exécution dans la prochaine version majeure d'Android, la 5.0.(175) Dans les versions qui ne sont plus prises en charge, jusqu’à la version 5.0, lorsque ART a pris le relais, Android était auparavant utilisé. Dalvik comme un processus machine virtuelle avec compilation JIT (Just-In-Time) basée sur les traces exécuter Dalvik "dex-code" (Dalvik Executable), qui est généralement traduit du Bytecode Java. Suivant le principe de JIT basé sur les traces, en plus de interprétation la majorité du code de l'application, Dalvik effectue la compilation et native execution of select frequently executed code segments ("traces") each time an application is launched.(176)(177)(178)

For its Java library, the Android platform uses a subset of the now discontinued Apache Harmony projet.(179) In December 2015, Google announced that the next version of Android would switch to a Java implementation based on the OpenJDK projet.(180)

Android's standard C library, Bionic, was developed by Google specifically for Android, as a derivation of the BSD's standard C library code. Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. The main benefits of using Bionic instead of the GNU C Library (glibc) or uClibc are its smaller runtime footprint, and optimization for low-frequency CPUs. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence, which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model.(178)

Aiming for a different licensing model, toward the end of 2012, Google switched the Bluetooth stack in Android from the GPL-licensed BlueZ to the Apache-licensed BlueDroid.(181)

Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. This made it difficult to port existing Linux applications or libraries to Android,(172) until version r5 of the Android Native Development Kit brought support for applications written completely in C ou C ++.(182) Libraries written in C may also be used in applications by injection of a small cale and usage of the JNI.(183)

In current versions of Android, "Toybox", a collection of command-line utilities (mostly for use by apps, as Android doesn't provide a command-line interface by default), is used (since the release of Marshmallow) replacing a similar "Toolbox" collection found in previous Android versions.(184)

Android has another operating system, Trusty OS, within it, as a part of "Trusty" "software components supporting a Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) on mobile devices." "Trusty and the Trusty API are subject to change. (..) Applications for the Trusty OS can be written in C/C++ (C++ support is limited), and they have access to a small C library. (..) All Trusty applications are single-threaded; multithreading in Trusty userspace currently is unsupported. (..) Third-party application development is not supported in" the current version, and software running on the OS and processor for it, run the "DRM framework for protected content. (..) There are many other uses for a TEE such as mobile payments, secure banking, full-disk encryption, multi-factor authentication, device reset protection, replay-protected persistent storage, wireless display ("cast") of protected content, secure PIN and fingerprint processing, and even malware detection."(185)

Android's code source is released by Google under an licence open source, and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.(186) These community-developed releases often bring new features and updates to devices faster than through the official manufacturer/carrier channels, with a comparable level of quality;(187) provide continued support for older devices that no longer receive official updates; or bring Android to devices that were officially released running other operating systems, such as the HP TouchPad. Community releases often come pre-enraciné and contain modifications not provided by the original vendor, such as the ability to overclock ou over/undervolt the device's processor.(188) CyanogenMod was the most widely used community firmware,(189) now discontinued and succeeded by LineageOS.(190)

Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.(191) Moreover, modified firmware such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features, such as tethering, for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked chargeurs de démarrage and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the États Unis that permits the "jailbreaking" of mobile devices,(192) manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC,(191) Motorola,(193) Samsung(194)(195) et Sony,(196) providing support and encouraging development. As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable chargeurs de démarrage, similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so.(191) However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down, frustrating developers and customers.(197)

Device codenames

Internally, Android identifies each supported device by its device codename, a short string(198), which may or may not be similar to the model name used in marketing the device. For example, the device codename of the Pixel smartphone est sailfish.

The device codename is usually not visible to the end user, but is important for determining compatibility with modified Android versions. It is sometimes also mentioned in articles discussing a device, because it allows to distinguish different hardware variants of a device, even if the manufacturer offers them under the same name. The device codename is available to running applications under android.os.Build.DEVICE(199).

Security and privacy

Scope of surveillance by public institutions

As part of the broader 2013 mass surveillance disclosures it was revealed in September 2013 that the American and British intelligence agencies, the National Security Agency (NSA) and Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), respectively, have access to the user data on iPhone, BlackBerry, and Android devices. They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.(200) In January 2014, further reports revealed the intelligence agencies' capabilities to intercept the personal information transmitted across the Internet by social networks and other popular applications such as Angry Birds, which collect personal information of their users for advertising and other commercial reasons. GCHQ has, according to Le gardien, une wiki-style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.(201) Later that week, the Finnish Angry Birds developer Rovio announced that it was reconsidering its relationships with its advertising platforms in the light of these revelations, and called upon the wider industry to do the same.(202)

The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.(201) The NSA and GCHQ insist their activities are in compliance with all relevant domestic and international laws, although the Guardian stated "the latest disclosures could also add to mounting public concern about how the technology sector collects and uses information, especially for those outside the US, who enjoy fewer privacy protections than Americans."(201)

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013–2016, detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to perform electronic surveillance and cyber guerre, including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones (including Android).(203)(204)

Common security threats

Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user. Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties.(205) Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being exagéré by security companies for commercial reasons,(206)(207) and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users.(206) Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare,(207) and a survey conducted by F-Secure showed that only 0.5% of Android malware reported had come from the Google Play store.(208)

In August 2015, Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security des patchs. Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store. "(209)(210)(211) The following October, researchers at the Université de Cambridge concluded that 87.7% of Android phones in use had known but unpatched security vulnerabilities due to lack of updates and support.(212)(213)(214) Ron Amadeo of Ars Technica wrote also in August 2015 that "Android was originally designed, above all else, to be widely adopted. Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption. (…) Now, though, Android has around 75–80 percent of the worldwide smartphone market—making it not just the world's most popular mobile operating system but arguably the most popular operating system, period. As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn't work".(215) Following news of Google's monthly schedule, some manufacturers, including Samsung and LG, promised to issue monthly security updates,(216) but, as noted by Jerry Hildenbrand in Android Central in February 2016, "instead we got a few updates on specific versions of a small handful of models. And a bunch of broken promises".(217)

In a March 2017 post on Google's Security Blog, Android security leads Adrian Ludwig and Mel Miller wrote that "More than 735 million devices from 200+ manufacturers received a platform security update in 2016" and that "Our carrier and hardware partners helped expand deployment of these updates, releasing updates for over half of the top 50 devices worldwide in the last quarter of 2016". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of 2016 had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.(218) Furthermore, in a comment to TechCrunch, Ludwig stated that the wait time for security updates had been reduced from "six to nine weeks down to just a few days", with 78% of flagship devices in North America being up-to-date on security at the end of 2016.(219)

Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices.(220)(221) However, the open-source nature of Android allows security contractors to take existing devices and adapt them for highly secure uses. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Dragée on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project.(222)(223)

Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wifi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, Facebook Places, and to deliver location-based ads.(224) Third party monitoring software such as TaintDroid,(225) an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers.(226)

Technical security features

Android applications run in a bac à sable, an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps. It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely. This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8.(227)

Since February 2012, Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store.(228)(229) A "Verify Apps" feature was introduced in November 2012, as part of the Android 4.2 "Jelly Bean" operating system version, to scan all apps, both from Google Play and from third-party sources, for malicious behavior.(230) Originally only doing so during installation, Verify Apps received an update in 2014 to "constantly" scan apps, and in 2017 the feature was made visible to users through a menu in Settings.(231)(232)

Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.(233) Dans Android 6.0 "Marshmallow", the permissions system was changed; apps are no longer automatically granted all of their specified permissions at installation time. An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time. Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach. In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them. The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled. Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself.(234)(235) The new permissions model is used only by applications developed for Marshmallow using its kit de développement logiciel (SDK), and older apps will continue to use the previous all-or-nothing approach. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.(236)(237)

In September 2014, Jason Nova of Autorité Android reported on a study by the German security company Fraunhofer AISEC in Logiciel antivirus and malware threats on Android. Nova wrote that "The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe. By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe. If then later on parts of the app are activated that turn out to be malicious, the antivirus will have no way to know since it is inside the app and out of the antivirus’ jurisdiction". The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast, AVG, Bitdefender, ESET, F-Secure, Kaspersky, Lookout, McAfee (formerly Intel Security), Norton, Sophos, et Trend Micro, revealed that "the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks", and that "the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity".(238)

In August 2013, Google announced Android Device Manager (renamed Find My Device in May 2017),(239)(240) a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device,(241)(242) with an Android app for the service released in December.(243)(244) In December 2016, Google introduced a Trusted Contacts app, letting users request location-tracking of loved ones during emergencies.(245)(246)

On October 8, 2018 Google announced new Google Play store requirements to combat over-sharing of potentially sensitive information, including call and text logs. The issue stems from the fact that many apps request permissions to access user's personal information (even if this information is not needed for the app to function) and some users unquestionably grant these permissions. Alternatively, a permission might be listed in the app manifest as required (as opposed to optional) and app would not install unless user grants the permission; user can withdraw any, even required, permission from any app in the device settings after app installation, but few users do this. Google promised to work with developers and create exceptions if their apps require Phone or SMS permissions for "core app functionality". The new policies enforcement started on January 6, 2019, 90 days after policy announcement on October 8, 2018. Furthermore, Google announced a new "target API level requirement" (targetSdkVersion in manifest) at least Android 8.0 (API level 26) for all new apps and app updates. The API level requirement might combat practice of app developers bypassing some permission screens by specifying early Android versions that had more coarse permission model.(247)(248)

Licence

le code source for Android is open-source: it is developed in private by Google, with the source code released publicly when a new version of Android is released. Google publishes most of the code (including network and telephony des piles) under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.0. which allows modification and redistribution.(249)(250) The license does not grant rights to the "Android" trademark, so device manufacturers and wireless carriers have to license it from Google under individual contracts. Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft Licence publique générale GNU version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance, with the source code publicly available at all times. Typically, Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a flagship device (part of the Nexus series) featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released.(251) The only Android release which was not immediately made available as source code was the tablet-only 3.0 Nid d'abeille Libération. The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Nid d'abeille was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom,(252) and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.(253)

Only the base Android operating system (including some applications) is open-source software, whereas most Android devices ship with a substantial amount of proprietary software, such as Google Mobile Services, which includes applications such as Google Play Store, Google Search, and Google Play Services – a software layer that provides APIs for the integration with Google-provided services, among others. These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.(88) Custom, certified distributions of Android produced by manufacturers (such as TouchWiz et HTC Sense) may also replace certain stock Android apps with their own proprietary variants and add additional software not included in the stock Android operating system.(87) There may also be "binary blob" les chauffeurs required for certain hardware components in the device.(87)(129)

Richard Stallman et le Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant, because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software; although the Free Software Foundation has not found Google to use it for malicious reasons.(254)(255)

Leverage over manufacturers

Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google's compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.(256) Thus, forks of Android that make major changes to the operating system itself do not include any of Google's non-free components, stay incompatible with applications that require them, and must ship with an alternative software marketplace in lieu of Google Play Store.(87) Examples of such Android forks are Amazonede Fire OS (which is used on the Kindle Fire line of tablets, and oriented toward Amazon services), the Nokia X Software Platform (a fork used by the Nokia X family, oriented primarily toward Nokia et Microsoft services), and other forks that exclude Google apps due to the general unavailability of Google services in certain regions (such as Chine).(257)(258) In 2014, Google also began to require that all Android devices which license the Google Mobile Services software display a prominent "Powered by Android" logo on their boot screens.(88) Google has also enforced preferential bundling and placement of Google Mobile Services on devices, including mandated bundling of the entire main suite of Google applications, and that shortcuts to Google Search and the Play Store app must be present on or near the main home screen page in its default configuration.(259)

Some stock applications and components in AOSP code that were formerly used by earlier versions of Android, such as Search, Music, Calendar, and the location API, were abandonné by Google in favor of non-free replacements distributed through Play Store (Google Search, Google Play Music, and Google Calendar) and Google Play Services, which are no longer open-source. Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions, such as Photosphere panoramas in Camera, and a Google Now page on the default home screen (exclusive to the proprietary version "Google Now Launcher", whose code is embedded within that of the main Google application).(87)(260)(261)(262) These measures are likely intended to discourage forks and encourage commercial licensing in line with Google requirements, as the majority of the operating system's core functionality (and in turn, third-party software), are dependent on proprietary components licensed exclusively by Google, and it would take significant development resources to develop an alternative suite of software and APIs to replicate or replace them. Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself.(263)

In March 2018, it was reported that Google had begun to block "uncertified" Android devices from using Google Mobile Services software, and display a warning indicating that "the device manufacturer has preloaded Google apps and services without certification from Google". Users of custom ROMs are able to register their device ID to their Google account to remove this block.(264)

Members of the Open Handset Alliance, which include the majority of Android OEMs, are also contractually forbidden from producing Android devices based on forks of the OS;(87)(265) in 2012, Acer Inc. was forced by Google to halt production on a device powered by Groupe Alibabade Aliyun OS with threats of removal from the OHA, as Google deemed the platform to be an incompatible version of Android. Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android (primarily using HTML5 apps), but incorporated portions of Android's platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software. Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were piraté.(266)(267)(268)

accueil

Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in 2007. Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.(269) The idea of an open-source, Linux-based development platform sparked interest,(270) but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development.(271) These established players were skeptical: Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat," and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have."(272)

Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system(273)(274) and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available".(275) Reviewers have highlighted the open-source nature of the operating system as one of its defining strengths, allowing companies such as Nokia (Nokia X family),(276) Amazon (Kindle Fire), Barnes & Noble (Coin), Ouya, Baidu and others to fourchette the software and release hardware running their own customised version of Android. As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms.(273) This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others.(273)(277)

Despite Android's popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.(278) The Verge suggested that Google is losing control of Android due to the extensive customization and proliferation of non-Google apps and services – Amazon's Kindle Fire line uses Fire OS, a heavily modified fork of Android which does not include or support any of Google's proprietary components, and requires that users obtain software from its competing Amazon Appstore instead of Play Store.(87) In 2014, in an effort to improve prominence of the Android brand, Google began to require that devices featuring its proprietary components display an Android logo on the boot screen.(88)

Android has suffered from "fragmentation",(279) a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less. For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July 2013, there were 11,868 models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.(280) Critics such as Apple Insider have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and software pushed Android's growth through large volumes of low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of Android. They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.(281) However, OpenSignal, who develops both Android and iOS apps, concluded that although fragmentation can make development trickier, Android's wider global reach also increases the potential reward.(280)

Market share

Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of 2009, that Android had a 2.8% share of worldwide téléphone intelligent shipments.(282) By May 2010, Android had a 10% worldwide smartphone market share, overtaking Windows Mobile,(283) whilst in the US Android held a 28% share, overtaking iPhone OS.(284) By the fourth quarter of 2010, its worldwide share had grown to 33% of the market becoming the top-selling smartphone platform,(285) dépassement Symbian.(286) In the US it became the top-selling platform in April 2011, overtaking BlackBerry OS with a 31.2% smartphone share, according to comScore.(287)

By the third quarter of 2011, Gartner estimated that more than half (52.5%) of the smartphone sales belonged to Android.(288) By the third quarter of 2012 Android had a 75% share of the global smartphone market according to the research firm IDC.(289)

In July 2011, Google said that 550,000 Android devices were being activated every day,(290) up from 400,000 per day in May,(291) and more than 100 million devices had been activated(292) with 4.4% growth per week.(290) In September 2012, 500 million devices had been activated with 1.3 million activations per day.(293)(294) In May 2013, at Google I/O, Sundar Pichai announced that 900 million Android devices had been activated.(295)

Android market share varies by location. In July 2012, "mobile subscribers aged 13+" in the United States using Android were up to 52%,(296) and rose to 90% in China.(297) During the third quarter of 2012, Android's worldwide smartphone shipment market share was 75%,(289) with 750 million devices activated in total. In April 2013 Android had 1.5 million activations per day.(294) As of May 2013, 48 billion applications ("apps") have been installed from the Google Play store,(298) and by September 2013, one billion Android devices have been activated.(299)

As of February 2017, la Google Play store has over 2.7 million Android applications published,(300) and As of May 2016, apps have been downloaded more than 65 billion times.(301) The operating system's success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called "smartphone wars" between technology companies.(302)(303)

Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while "only in Japan was Apple on top" (September–November 2013 numbers).(304) At the end of 2013, over 1.5 billion Android smartphones have been sold in the four years since 2010,(305)(306) making Android the most sold phone and tablet OS. Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of 2014 (including previous years). According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since 2012.(307) In 2013, it outsold Windows 2.8:1 or by 573 million.(308)(309)(310) As of 2015, Android has the largest base installée of all operating systems;(20) Since 2013, devices running it also sell more than Windows, iOS and Mac OS X devices combined.(311)

Selon StatCounter, which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August 2013.(312) Android is the most popular operating system for web browsing in India and several other countries (e.g. virtually all of Asia, with Japan and North Korea exceptions). According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated "mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia",(313) with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already (except for seven countries, including Egypt), such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile (including tablets) usage is at 90.46% (Android only, accounts for 75.81% of all use there).(314)(315)

While Android phones in the Western world commonly include Google's proprietary add-ons (such as Google Play) to the otherwise open-source operating system, this is increasingly not the case in emerging markets; "ABI Research claims that 65 million devices shipped globally with open-source Android in the second quarter of (2014), up from 54 million in the first quarter"; depending on country, percent of phones estimated to be based only on AOSP source code, forgoing the Android trademark: Thailand (44%), Philippines (38%), Indonesia (31%), India (21%), Malaysia (24%), Mexico (18%), Brazil (9%).(316)

According to a January 2015 Gartner report, "Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in 2014, and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in 2015, with a 26 percent increase year over year." This made it the first time that any general-purpose operating system has reached more than one billion end users within a year: by reaching close to 1.16 billion end users in 2014, Android shipped over four times more than iOS et OS X combined, and over three times more than Microsoft Windows. Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to "reach two billion units in 2016", including Android.(317) Describing the statistics, Farhad Manjoo wrote in Le New York Times that "About one of every two computers sold today is running Android. (It) has become Earth's dominant computing platform."(20)

According to a Statistica's estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.8 billion units in 2015, which was 76% of the estimated total number of smartphones worldwide.(318)(319)(une) Android has the largest installed base of any système d'exploitation mobile and, since 2013, the highest-selling operating system overall(308)(311)(321)(322)(323) with sales in 2012, 2013 and 2014(324) close to the installed base of all PCs.(325)

In the second quarter of 2014, Android's share of the global smartphone shipment market was 84.7%, a new record.(326)(327) This had grown to 87.5% worldwide market share by the third quarter of 2016,(328) leaving main competitor iOS with 12.1% market share.(329)

According to an April 2017 StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.(330)(331) It has maintained the plurality since then.(332)

In September 2015, Google announced that Android had 1.4 billion monthly active users.(333)(334) This changed to 2 billion monthly active users in May 2017.(335)(336)

Adoption on tablets

Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.(337) One of the main causes was the chicken or the egg situation where consumers were hesitant to buy an Android tablet due to a lack of high quality tablet applications, but developers were hesitant to spend time and resources developing tablet applications until there was a significant market for them.(338)(339) The content and app "ecosystem" proved more important than hardware spécifications as the selling point for tablets. Due to the lack of Android tablet-specific applications in 2011, early Android tablets had to make do with existing smartphone applications that were ill-suited to larger screen sizes, whereas the dominance of Apple's iPad was reinforced by the large number of tablet-specific iOS applications.(339)(340)

Despite app support in its infancy, a considerable number of Android tablets, like the Barnes & Noble Nook (alongside those using other operating systems, such as the HP TouchPad et BlackBerry PlayBook) were rushed out to market in an attempt to capitalize on the success of the iPad.(339) InfoWorld has suggested that some Android manufacturers initially treated their first tablets as a "Frankenphone business", a short-term low-investment opportunity by placing a smartphone-optimized Android OS (before Android 3.0 Nid d'abeille for tablets was available) on a device while neglecting user interface. This approach, such as with the Dell Streak, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets.(341)(342) Furthermore, several Android tablets such as the Motorola Xoom were priced the same or higher than the iPad, which hurt sales. An exception was the Amazone Kindle Fire, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon's ecosystem of applications and content.(339)(343)

This began to change in 2012, with the release of the affordable Nexus 7 and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet applications.(344) According to International Data Corporation, shipments of Android-powered tablets surpassed iPads in Q3 2012.(345)

Barnes & Noble Coin running Android

As of the end of 2013, over 191.6 million Android tablets had sold in three years since 2011.(346)(347) This made Android tablets the most-sold type of tablet in 2013, surpassing iPads in the second quarter of 2013.(348)

According to StatCounter's web use statistics, as of August 15, 2017, Android tablets represent the majority of tablet devices used in Amérique du sud (57.46%)(349) et Afrique (69.08%),(350) while being a distant second to iOS in North America (25.29%) and Europe (32.64%), despite having sizeable majorities in many Central American, Caribbean, et Eastern European states.(351)) and representing the majority in Asia (51.25%)(352) notably in India (65.98%)(353) et Indonésie (82.18%).(354) Android is an extremely distant second at 11.93% in Oceania as well, mostly due to Australie (10.71%) and Nouvelle-Zélande (16.9%), while in some countries such as Nauru over 80% of tablets are believed to use Android.(355) As well, Android is more often than not used by the minority of web users in Antarctique, which has no permanent population.(356)

In March 2016, Galen Gruman of InfoWorld stated that Android devices could be a "real part of your business (..) there's no longer a reason to keep Android at arm's length. It can now be as integral to your mobile portfolio as Pommede iOS devices are".(357) A year earlier, Gruman had stated that Microsoft's own mobile Office apps were "better on iOS and Android" than on Microsoft's own Windows 10 dispositifs.(358)

Platform usage

Pie (10.4%)

Oreo (28.3%)

Nougat (19.2%)

Marshmallow (16.9%)

Lollipop (14.5%)

KitKat (6.9%)

Jelly Bean (3.2%)

Ice Cream Sandwich (0.3%)

Gingerbread (0.3%)

This chart provides a breakdown of Android versions, based on devices accessing the Google Play Store in a seven-day period ending on May 7, 2019.(359)(b) Therefore, these statistics exclude devices running various Android fourches that do not access the Google Play Store, such as Amazon's Fire tablets.

Version Code name Date de sortie API level Runtime Distribution First devices to run version
9 Tarte August 6, 2018 Current stable version: 28 ART 10.4% Essential Phone, Pixel, Pixel XL, Pixel 2, Pixel 2 XL, Nokia 7 Plus, OnePlus 6, Oppo R15 Pro, Sony Xperia XZ2, Vivo X21UD, Vivo X21, Xiaomi Mi Mix 2S(360)
8.1 Oreo December 5, 2017 Older version, yet still supported: 27 ART 15.4% Pixel, Pixel XL, Nexus 6P, Nexus 5X
8.0 August 21, 2017 Older version, yet still supported: 26 ART 12,9% N / A
7.1 Nougat October 4, 2016 Older version, yet still supported: 25 ART 7.8% Pixel, Pixel XL
7,0 August 22, 2016 Older version, yet still supported: 24 ART 11.4% Nexus 5X, Nexus 6P
6.0 Marshmallow October 5, 2015 Old version, no longer supported: 23 ART 16.9%
5.1 Sucette March 9, 2015 Old version, no longer supported: 22 ART 11.5% Android One
5.0 November 3, 2014 Old version, no longer supported: 21 ART 2.1.0 3.0% Nexus 6, Nexus 9
4.4 KitKat October 31, 2013 Old version, no longer supported: 19 Dalvik (and ART 1.6.0) 6.9% Nexus 5
4.3 Dragée July 24, 2013 Old version, no longer supported: 18 Dalvik 0,5% Nexus 7 2013
4.2 November 13, 2012 Old version, no longer supported: 17 Dalvik 1.5% Nexus 4, Nexus 10
4.1 July 9, 2012 Old version, no longer supported: 16 Dalvik 1.2% Nexus 7
4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich October 19, 2011 Old version, no longer supported: 15 Dalvik 0,3% Galaxy Nexus
2.3 Gingerbread February 9, 2011 Old version, no longer supported: dix Dalvik 1.4.0 0,3% Nexus S

Legend:

Old version

Older version, still supported

Latest version

Latest preview version

Future release

As of May 2019, 78.9% of devices have OpenGL ES 3.0 ou plus.

Application piracy

In general, paid Android applications can easily be piraté.(361) In a May 2012 interview with Eurogamer, the developers of Football Manager stated that the ratio of pirated players vs legitimate players was 9:1 for their game Football Manager Handheld.(362) However, not every developer agreed that piracy rates were an issue; for example, in July 2012 the developers of the game Wind-up Knight said that piracy levels of their game were only 12%, and most of the piracy came from China, where people cannot purchase apps from Google Play.(363)

In 2010, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to fissure. Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution.(364) Android "Jelly Bean" introduced the ability for paid applications to be encrypted, so that they may work only on the device for which they were purchased.(365)(366)

Legal issues

The success of Android has made it a target for patent and copyright litigation between technology companies, both Android and Android phone manufacturers having been involved in numerous patent lawsuits and other legal challenges.

Patent lawsuit with Oracle

On August 12, 2010, Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language.(367) Oracle originally sought damages up to $6.1 billion,(368) but this valuation was rejected by a United States federal judge who asked Oracle to revise the estimate.(369) In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle's patents or copyright, that Oracle's patents were invalid, and several other defenses. They said that Android's Java runtime environment is based on Apache Harmony, une chambre propre implementation of the Java class libraries, and an independently developed virtual machine called Dalvik.(370) In May 2012, the jury in this case found that Google did not infringe on Oracle's patents, and the trial judge ruled that the structure of the Java APIs used by Google was not copyrightable.(371)(372) The parties agreed to zero dollars in statutory damages for a small amount of copied code.(373) On May 9, 2014, the Federal Circuit partially reversed the district court ruling, ruling in Oracle's favor on the copyrightability issue, and rappelant l'issue de fair use to the district court.(374)(375)

In December 2015, Google announced that the next major release of Android (Android Nougat) would switch to OpenJDK, which is the official open-source implementation of the Java platform, instead of using the now-discontinued Apache Harmony project as its runtime. Code reflecting this change was also posted to the AOSP source repository.(179) In its announcement, Google claimed this was part of an effort to create a "common code base" between Java on Android and other platforms.(180) Google later admitted in a court filing that this was part of an effort to address the disputes with Oracle, as its use of OpenJDK code is governed under the Licence publique générale GNU (GPL) with a linking exception, and that "any damages claim associated with the new versions expressly licensed by Oracle under OpenJDK would require a separate analysis of damages from earlier releases".(179) In June 2016, a United States federal court ruled in favor of Google, stating that its use of the APIs was fair use.(376)

Anti-competitive challenges in Europe

En 2013, FairSearch, a lobbying organization supported by Microsoft, Oracle and others, filed a complaint regarding Android with the Commission européenne, alleging that its free-of-charge distribution model constituted anti-competitive Prix ​​d'éviction. le Free Software Foundation Europe, whose donors include Google, disputed the Fairsearch allegations.(377) On April 20, 2016, the EU filed a formal antitrust complaint against Google based upon the FairSearch allegations, arguing that its leverage over Android vendors, including the mandatory bundling of the entire suite of proprietary Google software, hindering the ability for competing search providers to be integrated into Android, and barring vendors from producing devices running forks of Android, constituted anti-competitive practices.(378) In August 2016, Google was fined US$6.75 million by the Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service (FAS) under similar allegations by Yandex.(379) The European Commission issued its decision on July 18, 2018, determining that Google had conducted three antitrust operations related to Android: bundling Google's search and Chrome as part of Android, blocking phone manufacturers from using forked versions of Android, and establishing deals with phone manufacturers and network providers to exclusively bundle the Google search application on handsets (a practice Google ended by 2014). The EU fined Google for €4.3 billion (about US$5 billion) and required the company to end this conduct within 90 days.(380) Google filed its appeal of the ruling in October 2018, though will not ask for any interim measures to delay the onset of conduct requirements.(381)

On October 16, 2018, Google announced that it would change its distribution model for Google Mobile Services in the EU, since part of its revenues streams for Android which came through use of Google Search and Chrome were now prohibited by the EU's ruling. While the core Android system remains free, OEMs in Europe would be required to purchase a paid license to the core suite of Google applications, such as Gmail, Google Maps and the Google Play Store. Google Search will be licensed separately, with an option to include Google Chrome at no additional cost atop Search. European OEMs are able to bundle third-party alternatives on phones and devices sold to customers, if they so choose. OEMs will no longer be barred from selling any device running incompatible versions of Android in Europe.(382)

Autres

In addition to lawsuits against Google directly, various proxy wars have been waged against Android indirectly by targeting manufacturers of Android devices, with the effect of discouraging manufacturers from adopting the platform by increasing the costs of bringing an Android device to market.(383) Both Pomme and Microsoft have sued several manufacturers for patent infringement, with Apple's ongoing legal action against Samsung being a particularly high-profile case. In January 2012, Microsoft said they had signed patent license agreements with eleven Android device manufacturers, whose products account for "70 percent of all Android smartphones" sold in the US(384) and 55% of the worldwide revenue for Android devices.(385) These include Samsung et HTC.(386) Samsung's patent settlement with Microsoft included an agreement to allocate more resources to developing and marketing phones running Microsoft's Windows Phone operating system.(383) Microsoft has also lié its own Android software to patent licenses, requiring the bundling of Microsoft Office Mobile et Skype applications on Android devices to subsidize the licensing fees, while at the same time helping to promote its software lines.(387)(388)

Google has publicly expressed its frustration for the current patent landscape in the United States, accusing Apple, Oracle and Microsoft of trying to take down Android through patent litigation, rather than innovating and competing with better products and services.(389) In August 2011, Google purchased Motorola Mobility for US$12.5 billion, which was viewed in part as a defensive measure to protect Android, since Motorola Mobility held more than 17,000 patents.(390)(391) In December 2011, Google bought over a thousand patents from IBM.(392)

Other uses

Google has developed several variations of Android for specific use cases, including Android Wear, later renamed Wear OS, for wearable devices such as wrist watches,(393)(394) Android TV for televisions,(395)(396) et Android Things for smart devices and Internet of things.(397)(398) Additionally, by providing infrastructure that combines dedicated hardware and dedicated applications running on regular Android, Google have opened up the platform for its use in particular usage scenarios, such as Android Auto for cars,(399)(400) et Daydream, a Virtual Reality platform.(401)

The open and customizable nature of Android allows device makers to use it on other electronics as well, including laptops, netbooks,(402)(403) and desktop computers,(404) cameras,(405) headphones,(406) home automation systems, game consoles,(407) media players,(408) satellites,(409) routeurs,(410) imprimantes,(411) payment terminals,(412) Guichets automatiques,(413) et robots.(414) Additionally, Android has been installed and run on a variety of less-technical objects, including calculators,(415) single-board computers,(416) téléphones de fonction,(417) electronic dictionaries,(418) réveils,(419) refrigerators,(420) ligne fixe telephones,(421) coffee machines,(422) les vélos,(423) and mirrors.(407)

Ouya, a video game console running Android, became one of the most successful Kickstarter campaigns, financement participatif US$8.5m for its development,(424)(425) and was later followed by other Android-based consoles, such as Nvidiade Shield Portable – an Android device in a contrôleur de jeu vidéo form factor.(426)

In 2011, Google demonstrated "Android@Home", a home automation technology which uses Android to control a range of household devices including light switches, power sockets and thermostats.(427) Prototype light bulbs were announced that could be controlled from an Android phone or tablet, but Android head Andy Rubin was cautious to note that "turning a lightbulb on and off is nothing new", pointing to numerous failed home automation services. Google, he said, was thinking more ambitiously and the intention was to use their position as a nuage services provider to bring Google products into customers' homes.(428)(429)

Parrot unveiled an Android-based autoradio system known as Asteroid in 2011,(430) followed by a successor, the touchscreen-based Asteroid Smart, in 2012.(431) En 2013, Clarion released its own Android-based car stereo, the AX1.(432) In January 2014, at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES), Google announced the formation of the Open Automotive Alliance, a group including several major automobile makers (Audi, General Motors, Hyundai, et Honda) and Nvidia, which aims to produce Android-based in-car entertainment systems for automobiles, "(bringing) the best of Android into the automobile in a safe and seamless way."(433)


Android comes preinstalled on a few laptops (a similar functionality of running Android applications is also available in Google's Chrome OS) and can also be installed on personal computers by end users.(434) On those platforms Android provides additional functionality for physical claviers(435) et des souris, together with the "Alt-Tab" key combination for switching applications quickly with a keyboard. In December 2014, one reviewer commented that Android's notification system is "vastly more complete and robust than in most environments" and that Android is "absolutely usable" as one's primary desktop operating system.(436)

In October 2015, Le journal de Wall Street reported that Android will serve as Google's future main laptop operating system, with the plan to fold Chrome OS into it by 2017.(437)(438) Google's Sundar Pichai, who led the development of Android, explained that "mobile as a computing paradigm is eventually going to blend with what we think of as desktop today."(437) Also, back in 2009, Google co-founder Sergey Brin himself said that Chrome OS and Android would "likely converge over time."(439) Lockheimer, who replaced Pichai as head of Android and Chrome OS, responded to this claim with an official Google blog post stating that "While we've been working on ways to bring together the best of both operating systems, there's no plan to phase out Chrome OS (which has) guaranteed auto-updates for five years".(440) That is unlike Android where support is shorter with "EOL dates (being..) at least 3 years (into the future) for Android tablets for education".(441)

À Google I/O in May 2016, Google announced Daydream, a réalité virtuelle platform that relies on a smartphone and provides VR capabilities through a virtual reality headset and controller designed by Google itself.(401) The platform is built into Android starting with Android Nougat, differentiating from standalone support for VR capabilities. The software is available for developers, and was released in 2016.

Mascot

The mascot of Android is a green android robot, as related to the software's name. Although it has no official name, the Android team at Google reportedly call it "Bugdroid".(442) Due to Android's high popularity in the 2010s, it has become one of the most recognizable icons in the technology world.

It was designed by then-Google graphic designer Irina Blok on November 5, 2007 when Android was announced. Contrary to reports that she was tasked with a project to create an icon,(443) Blok confirmed in an interview that she independently developed it and made it open source. The robot design was initially not presented to Google, but it quickly became commonplace in the Android development team, with various different variations of it created by the developers there who liked the figure, as it was free under a Creative Commons license.(444)(445) Its popularity amongst the development team eventually led to Google adopting it as an official icon as part of the Android logo when it launched to consumers in 2008.

Voir également

Remarques

  1. ^ To put the Statistica's numbers in context: by Strategy Analytics estimates, les fenêtres the most popular "desktop" operating system, has an estimated installed base of about 1.3 billion at best;(320) they also estimate the overall tablet installed base to be already of comparable size to the PC market and predict tablets will have surpassed them by 2018.
  2. ^ Versions accounting for less than 0.1% are not included.

Références

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